The introduction of digital information and communication technologies (ICT) to the public led to the biggest societal and economic transformation of recent history. These breakthroughs in the cyber domain, mobile space and social media have made a significant impact on society, stability, security and governance. In response to the impact of these technologies and media in these four areas, Western and authoritarian governments are taking very different approaches to the cyber domain domestically and internationally. In this case study, we consider two breakthroughs and their aftermath: the technological breakthrough, the impact of technological change on society, and the responses in governance. On the international level, this has also developed into competition between democratic and non-democratic states about the future of the internet. This is not a technical disagreement, but a fundamental dispute about the core values, structure and governance of the state.